[NetBehaviour] early Internet timeline - may also be of interest

Alan Sondheim sondheim at panix.com
Tue Mar 14 07:34:37 CET 2017

Found this also among my records, 1994 and earlier - in full -

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---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Sat, 25 Jun 1994 16:31:36 +0500
From: Robert H'obbes' Zakon <zakon at hobbes.mitre.org>
Subject: Hobbes' Internet Timeline (HIT) v1.3

Thank you for your comments/contributions to Hobbes' Internet Timeline (HIT).
A new version (1.3) of HIT is enclosed below.

   Robert H'obbes' Zakon, hobbes at hobbes.mitre.org
     Internet Evangelist, Information Discovery Group, The MITRE Corporation


Archive-name: Hobbes' Internet Timeline v1.3
Last-modified:  June 20, 1994
Maintainer: Robert H'obbes' Zakon, hobbes at hobbes.mitre.org
An Internet timeline highlighting some of the key events which helped
shape the Internet as we know today.


                        Hobbes' Internet Timeline v1.3
                             Robert H'obbes' Zakon
                            hobbes at hobbes.mitre.org

1956   USSR launches Sputnik, first artifial earth satellite.  In response,
        US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the
        Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and
        technology applicable to the military (:amk:)

1962   Paul Baran, RAND: "On Distributed Communications Networks"
          - Packet-switching networks; no single outage point

1967    ACM Symposium on Operating Principles
         - Plan presented for a packet-switching network

1968    Network presentation to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)

1969    ARPANET commissioned by DOD for research into networking
         - First node at UCLA [Network Measurements Center - Xerox DSS 7:SEX]
           and soon after at: [legend = function - system:os]
           - Stanford Research Institute (SRI) [NIC - SDS940/Genie]
           - UCSB [Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics - IBM 360/75:OS/MVT]
           - U of Utah [Graphics (hidden line removal) - DEC PDP-10:Tenex]
         - use of Information Message Processors (IMP) [Honeywell 516 mini
           computer with 12K of memory] developed by Bolt Beranek and Newman,
           Inc. (BBN)

         First Request for Comment (RFC): "Host Software" by Steve Crocker

1970    ALOHAnet developed by Norman Abrahamson, U of Hawaii (:sk2:)

         ARPANET hosts start using Network Control Protocol (NCP).

1971    15 nodes (23 hosts): UCLA, SRI, UCSB, U of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND, SDC,
         Harvard, Lincoln Lab, Stanford, UIU(C), CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames

1972    International Conference on Computer Communications with
         demonstration of ARPANET between 40 machines organized by Bob Kahn.

         InterNetworking Working Group (INWG) created to address need
         for establishing agreed upon protocols.  Chairman: Vinton Cerf.

         Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents email program to send messages across a
         distributed network. (:amk:)

1973    First international connections to the ARPANET: England and Norway

         Bob Metcalfe's Harvard PhD Thesis outlines idea for Ethernet (:amk:)

1974    Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network
         Internetworking" which specified in detail the design of a
         Transmission Control Program (TCP). (:amk:)

         BBN opens Telenet, commercial version of ARPANET (:sk2:)

1975    Operational management of Internet transferred to DCA (now DISA)

         "Jargon File", by Raphael Finkel at SAIL, first released (:esr:)

1970s   Store and Forward Networks
         - Used electronic mail technology and extended it to conferencing

         HM Elizabeth, Queen of the United Kingdom sends out an e-mail
         (anyone know the exact year?)

1976    UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed
         with UNIX one year later.

1977    THEORYNET created at U of Wisconsin providing electronic mail to
         over 100 researchers in computer science (using uucp).

1979    Meeting between U of Wisconsin, DARPA, NSF, and computer scientists
         from many universities to establish a Computer Science Department
         research computer network.

         USENET established using uucp between Duke and UNC by Tom Truscott
         and Steve Bellovin.

1981    BITNET, the "Because Its Time NETwork"
         - Started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York.
         - Provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute
         - Unlike USENET, where client s/w is needed, electronic mail is the
           only tool necessary.

         CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) built by UCAR and BBN through seed
         money granted by NSF to provide networking services (specially
         email) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET.  CSNET
         later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network. (:amk:)

         Minitel (Teletel) is deployed across France by French Telecom.

1982    INWG establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet
         Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for
         - This leads to one of the first definition of an "internet"
           as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP,
           and "Internet" as connected TCP/IP internets.
         - DoD declares TCP/IP suite to be standard for DoD (:vgc:)

         EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide email and
         USENET services. (:glg:)

1983    Name server developed at U of Wisconsin, no longer requiring users
         to know the exact path to other systems.

         Cutover from NCP to TCP/IP (1 January)

         CSNET / ARPANET gateway put in place

         ARPANET split into ARPANET and MILNET; the latter became integrated
         with the Defense Data Network created the previous year.

         Desktop workstations come into being, many with Berkeley UNIX which
         includes IP networking software.

         Need switches from having a single, large time sharing computer
         connected to Internet per site, to connection of an entire local

         Berkeley releases 4.2BSD incorporating TCP/IP (:mpc:)

         EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established.  Very
         similar to the way BITNET works.

         FidoNet developed by Tom Jennings.

1984    Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced.

         # of hosts breaks 1,000

         JUNET (Japan Unix Network) established using UUCP.

         JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK using the
         Coloured Book protocols.

1986    NSFNET created (backbone speed of 56Kbps)
         - NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing
           power for all (JVNC at Princeton, PSC at Pittsburgh, SDSC at UCSD, NCSA at UIUC,
           Theory Center at Cornell).
         - ARPANET bureaucracy keeps it from being used to interconnect
           centers and NSFNET comes into being with the aid of NASA and DOE.
         - This allows an explosion of connections, especially from

         Cleveland Freenet (start of NPTN) comes on-line (:sk2:)

         Network News Transfer Protocl (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news
         performance over TCP/IP.

         Mail Exchanger (MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allowing
         non-IP network hosts to have domain addresses.

1987    NSF signs a cooperative agreement to manage the NSFNET backbone with
         Merit Network, Inc. (IBM and MCI involvement was through an agreement
         with Merit).  Merit, IBM, and MCI later founded ANS.

         UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and
         Usenet access.

         1000th RFC: "Request For Comments reference guide"

         # of hosts breaks 10,000

         # of BITNET hosts breaks 1,000

1988    Internet worm burrows through the Net

1989    # of hosts breaks 100,000

         NSFNET backbone upgraded to T1 (1.544Mbps)

         RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeens) formed (by European service providers) to
         ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to
         allow the operation of the pan-European IP Network. (:glg:)

         First relay between a commercial electronic mail carrier (Compurserve)
         and the Internet through Ohio State University (:jg1:)

1990    ARPANET ceases to exist

         Second relay between a commercial electronic mail carrier (MCI Mail)
         and the Internet through the Corporation for the National Research
         Initiative (CNRI)

         Electronic Frontier Foundation is founded by Mitch Kapor

1991    Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association, Inc. formed by General
         Atomics (CERFnet), Performance Systems International, Inc. (PSInet),
         and UUNET Technologies, Inc. (AlterNet) (:glg:)

         WAIS released by Thinking Machines Corporation

         Gopher released by University of Minnesota

         US High Performance Computing Act (Gore 1) establishes the National
         Research and Education Network (NREN)

1992    Internet Society is chartered

         World-Wide Web released by CERN

         # of hosts breaks 1,000,000

         NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps)

         First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November)

1993    InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: (:sc1:)
           - directory and database services (AT&T)
           - registration services (Network Solutions Inc.)
           - information services (General Atomics/CERFnet)

         US White House comes on-line:
           - President Bill Clinton: president at whitehouse.gov
           - Vice-President Al Gore: vice-president at whitehouse.gov
           - First Lady Hillary Clinton: root at whitehouse.gov (-:rhz:-)

         Internet Talk Radio begins broadcasting (:sk2:)

         United Nations and World Bank come on-line (:vgc:)

         US National Information Infrastructure Act

         Businesses and media really take notice of the Internet

         Mosaic takes the Internet by storm; WWW proliferates at a 341,634%
         annual growth rate of service traffic.  Gopher's growth is 997%.

1994    Communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet

         US Senate and House provide information servers

         First flower shop taking orders via the Internet

         Shopping malls arrive on the Internet

         Mass marketing finds its way to the Internet with mass e-mailings

         Worms of a new kind find their way around the Net - WWW Worms (W4),
         joined by Spiders, Wanderers, Crawlers, and Snakes ...

         "A Day in the Life of the Internet" begs to be published (:rhz:)

Internet growth summary:

    Date       Hosts      |    Date       Hosts     Networks    Domains
    -----    ---------    +    -----    ---------   --------    -------
     1969            4    |    07/89      130,000        650      3,900
    04/71           23    |    10/89      159,000        837
    06/74           62    |    10/90      313,000      2,063      9,300
    03/77          111    |    01/91      376,000      2,338
    08/81          213    |    07/91      535,000      3,086     16,000
    05/82          235    |    10/91      617,000      3,556     18,000
    08/83          562    |    01/92      727,000      4,526
    10/84        1,024    |    04/92      890,000      5,291     20,000
    10/85        1,961    |    07/92      992,000      6,569     16,300
    02/86        2,308    |    10/92    1,136,000      7,505     18,100
    11/86        5,089    |    01/93    1,313,000      8,258     21,000
    12/87       28,174    |    04/93    1,486,000      9,722     22,000
    07/88       33,000    |    07/93    1,776,000     13,767     26,000
    10/88       56,000    |    10/93    2,056,000     16,533     28,000
    01/89       80,000    |    01/94    2,217,000     20,539     30,000

            ____# Countries____                     ____# Countries____
    Date     I   B   U   F   O              Date     I   B   U   F   O
    -----   --- --- --- --- ---             -----   --- --- --- --- ---
    09/91    31  47  79  49                 01/93    50  50 101  72  31
    12/91    33  46  78  53                 04/93    56  51 107  79  31
    02/92    38  46  92  63                 08/93    59  51 117  84  31
    04/92    40  47  90  66  25             02/94    62  51 125  88  31
    08/92    49  46  89  67  26

             (I)nternet  (B)ITNET   (U)UCP  (F)IDONET  (O)SI

USENET growth summary:

    Date  Sites  ~MB  ~Posts  Groups  |  Date  Sites  ~MB  ~Posts  Groups
    ----  -----  ---  ------  ------  +  ----  -----  ---  ------  ------
    1979      3            2       3  |  1984    900          225
    1980     15           10          |  1985   1300  1.0     375
    1981    150  0.5      20          |  1986   2200  2.0     946     241
    1982    400           35          |  1987   5200  2.1     957     259
    1983    600          120          |  1988   7800  4.4    1933     381

       ~ approximate: MB - megabytes per day, Posts - articles per day
               HELP: Where is this data archived from 1989- ?


Comments/corrections should be sent to hobbes at hobbes.mitre.org.

Hobbes' Internet Timeline Copyright (c)1993-4 by Robert H Zakon.
Permission is granted for use of this document in whole or in part for non
commercial purposes as long as appropriate credit is given to the author/
maintainer.  For commercial uses, please contact the author first.

Hobbes' Internet Timeline FAQ:

Q: Why did you compile Hobbes' Internet Timeline?
A: For use in the Internet courses I teach: Introduction to the Internet,
    Internet Tools Administration, and Net Surfing 101.

Q: How do I get Hobbes' Internet Timeline?
A: For now, you can send an e-mail to timeline at hobbes.mitre.org.  You will
    receive an automated reply with the Timeline.  For comments/corrections
    please use hobbes at hobbes.mitre.org.  If you'd like to host an HTML
    version on your server for Net wide access, drop me an e-mail.

Q: What do you do at MITRE?
A: I design the soccer shoe of the future :-)  Nah, actually, I wear the
    following hats: Internet Evangelist, HCI Engineer, Systems Integrator,
    System Administrator, Instructor, He with the Most Toys

Q: Is your license plate really NET SURF?
A: Yes, and there is a frame around it with INTERNET at the top, and my
    e-mail address at the bottom. (My wife is too embarrassed to drive it:)

Q: Who do you think is going to win the World Cup?
A: Brasil, of course!  (I was born in Rio de Janeiro ...)

A: Peddie (Ala Viva!), CWRU (North Side), Amici Usque Ad Aras (OH Epsilon)
Q: E-mail me if you know

Hobbes' Internet Timeline was compiled from a number of sources, with some
of the stand-outs being:

Cerf, Vinton (as told to Bernard Aboba). "How the Internet Came to Be."
This article appears in "The Online User's Encyclopedia," by Bernard Aboba.
Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Hardy, Henry. "The History of the Net."  Master's Thesis, School of
Communications, Grand Valley State University.

Hauben, Ronda and Michael. "The Netizens and the Wonderful World of the Net."

Kulikowski, Stan II. "A Timeline of Network History." (author's email below)

Quarterman, John. "The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems
Worldwide."  Bedford, MA: Digital Press. 1990

Internet growth summary compiled from:
   - zone program reports maintained by Mark Lottor at:
   - connectivity table maintained by Larry Landweber at:

USENET growth summary compiled from Quarterman and Hauben sources above

Contributors to Hobbes' Internet Timeline have their initials next to the
contributed items in the form (:zzz:) and are:

amk - Alex McKenzie (mckenzie at bbn.com)
esr - Eric S. Raymond (esr at locke.ccil.org)
glg - Gail L. Grant (grant at pa.dec.com)
jg1 - Jim Gaynor (gaynor at agvax.ag.ohio.state.edu)
mpc - Mellisa P. Chase (pc at mitre.org)
sc1 - Susan Calcari (susanc at is.internic.net)
sk2 - Stan Kulikowski (stankuli at uwf.bitnet) - see sources section
vgc - Vinton Cerf (vcerf at isoc.org) - see sources section

:-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) ;-)   Help the Author   (-: (-: (-: (-: (-: (-: (-:

The author is on an eternal genealogical search.  If you know of someone
whose last name is Zakon or could spare 1 minute to check your local phone
book, please e-mail any info (i.e., name, phone, address, city) to
rhz at po.cwru.edu; your help is greatly appreciated.

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